Increasingly, Wolsey handled state affairs; he became archbishop of York inchancellor and representative to the papacy office of the pope in He also invaded Provence, a region in southeast France, and areas of northern France. Charles ascended to the English throne in following the death of his father, King James I.
Inthe treasury verged on bankruptcy. The court paid small pensions financial allowances for retired people to the former monks and nuns, and larger ones to the former abbots and priors heads of monasteries who had cooperated in the closing of their houses.
The result was absolute chaos, as leaders of states vied for more power and larger territories. He firmly established the strength of the monarchy by enforcing his royal powers. Anne wanted to give her son absolute authority and a victorious kingdom. Inhe went to Parliament with soldiers to arrest his five biggest critics.
Most of them were small farmers who worked their farms with their families. She was an accomplished performer on the virginal, the keyboard instrument named in honor of her status as the Virgin Queen—Elizabeth refused to get married because she had devoted her life to her country.
Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. Among the reforms they demanded were simplified services, less elaborate church musicsimpler vestments robes worn by clergymenand more preaching.
Its terms ensured Dutch independence from Spainawarded some autonomy to the various German princes of the Holy Roman Empireand granted Sweden seats on the Imperial Diet and territories to control the mouths of the OderElbeand Weser rivers.
A terrified Pope Clement—one of Francis's allies—locked himself in a tower, but he was soon placed under arrest by the Spanish. Purchasing the works of Italian painters Michelangelo, Raphael, and Titian, Francis also invited some of the finest Italian artists of the day to come to France.
Anne and Mazarin had largely pursued the policies of Cardinal Richelieuaugmenting the Crown's power at the expense of the nobility and the Parlements. Many people have often wrongly put the Witch-hunts down to religious tyranny and maniacal religious zealots.
The Iberians were followed by the Carthaginians. The border between the red and pink areas represents the "Proclamation line", while the orange area represents the Spanish claim. A town meeting in Boston determined that the tea would not be landed, and ignored a demand from the governor to disperse.
In pursuit of the second he led France, ininto the Thirty Years' War —a series of conflicts fought mainly in Germany over many social, political, and religious issues see "Thirty Years' War" in Chapter 6.
He later responded to political opposition to his rule by dissolving Parliament on several occasions and in decided to rule entirely without Parliament.
The first successful English colony in North America was Jamestown, Virginia, which was started in during the reign of Elizabeth's successor, James I. They were fighting for their rights.
Margaret was exiled to France, and Henry lived the rest of his life imprisoned in the Tower of London a prison for members of the royalty and nobility. But in MayCharles's soldiers made a massive assault on the city and caused extensive damage.
Jane was proclaimed queen inbut after only nine days she was imprisoned for high treason as a result of the plot to make her queen.
To the aristocracy, this rebellion represented a protest against and a reversal of their political demotion from vassals to courtiers. Beneath them were lords noblemen and clergymen church officialswho were granted tracts of land called fiefs pronounced feefs by the king.
Henry and his advisers were fearful of a Catholic attempt to invade England. Finally, he became so obsessed by his rivalry with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V that he lost all sense of proportion, spending heavily on unsuccessful wars against Spain.
The English Evil War — Many Spanish ships broke up on the west coast of Ireland, and only half of the Armada eventually returned to Spain. In Charles ordered that everyone in the country should pay Ship Money.
More money wasted, words broken, high treason from the King Himself! It also called for Francis's two sons to be held in Madrid for a ransom money paid for releasing a hostage of two million gold crowns a large sum of Spanish money.
He improperly anchored the fleet, thus leaving an opening for a squadron of English fire ships to set the Armada ablaze. At first the Capetians' control over the other duchies of France was mostly in name only because many were semi-independent kingdoms.
He often broke treaties, and on occasion he even allied with Muslims and Protestants to oppose Catholic Spain. English settlers made three failed attempts to start a colony at Roanoke, an island off the coast of Virginia.The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years.
The Rise of Monarchies: France, England, and SpainOne of the most significant developments in the three centuries leading up to the Renaissance period was the collapse of feudalism.
This social and economic system had emerged during the ninth century in the Carolingian Empire (pronounced care-eh-LIN-jee-ehn), which was centered in the region that is now France.
History online class.
for BYU independent study, midterm. and not until the restoration of King Charles in was the government stable enough to turn its attention to its colonies in America. Regarding Christianity, most slaves in North America Assess the reasons behind the phenomenal population growth of the colonies.
Portrait of King Charles I in his robes of state, by Anthony van Dyck (). Source: Royal Collection. Americans have traditionally viewed the War for Independence as a revolt against the authority of Britain’s King George III.
The reasons behind Peter the Great's Grand Embassy to Germany, Holland, and England When Peter became Czar, he decided that Russia must be backwards no longer and that they must learn warfare, shipbuilding, and armaments manufacture. The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between and separate from that of the British people.
In the s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more even if they were unfamiliar with the ideological reasons behind the.Download